Breach of Contract in Thailand

Thailand’s economy thrives on contracts, agreements that bind parties to fulfill specific obligations. However, unforeseen circumstances or deliberate actions can lead to a breach of contract, jeopardizing the deal and causing losses. This guide explores breach of contract in Thailand, outlining its definition, legal framework, remedies available, and steps to take if you face a contractual breach.

Understanding Breach of Contract:

A breach of contract occurs when one party to a legally binding agreement fails to fulfill their obligations as outlined in the contract, without a legitimate legal excuse. This failure can take various forms:

  • Non-performance: The party completely fails to deliver the promised goods, services, or actions.
  • Defective performance: The goods or services delivered are faulty or substandard compared to what was agreed upon.
  • Late performance: Delivery or completion of obligations occurs beyond the stipulated timeframe.
  • Anticipatory breach: One party clearly indicates their intention not to fulfill their contractual obligations.

The severity of the breach determines the consequences and the remedies available.

Legal Framework in Thailand:

Thailand’s Civil and Commercial Code governs contracts and breaches. The core principle is “pacta sunt servanda” (agreements must be kept). The law emphasizes upholding the sanctity of contracts and providing remedies for the non-breaching party.

To establish a breach of contract, you need to demonstrate:

  • A valid contract exists: The agreement must be legally binding, with clear terms and conditions.
  • Breach by the other party: They failed to fulfill their obligations as outlined in the contract.
  • You suffered damages: The breach caused you financial loss or other negative consequences.

The burden of proof lies with the non-breaching party to establish these elements.

Remedies for Breach of Contract:

If you successfully demonstrate a breach of contract, Thai law provides various remedies:

  • Specific performance: The court may order the breaching party to fulfill their contractual obligations as originally agreed upon.
  • Damages: This is the most common remedy, where the breaching party compensates the non-breaching party for the financial losses suffered due to the breach. Damages can include lost profits, additional expenses, and the difference in value between what was promised and what was delivered.
  • Termination of the contract: The non-breaching party may have the right to terminate the contract entirely, releasing them from further obligations.

The specific remedy awarded depends on the nature of the breach, the severity of the harm caused, and the terms of the contract itself.

Taking Action for Breach of Contract:

If you believe you are facing a breach of contract in Thailand, here are some steps to take:

  • Review the contract: Carefully examine the terms and conditions to understand the specific obligations of each party.
  • Gather evidence: Document the breach, including communication records, invoices, and any evidence of losses incurred.
  • Attempt to resolve amicably: Negotiation or mediation might be an option before resorting to legal action.
  • Seek legal counsel: A lawyer experienced in Thai contract law can advise you on your rights and the best course of action.
  • Litigation: If necessary, you can file a lawsuit in Thai courts to seek enforcement of the contract or claim compensation for damages.

Important Considerations:

  • Notice of breach: In some cases, it might be necessary to formally notify the other party of the breach and provide them with an opportunity to rectify the situation before taking legal action.
  • Time Limits: Thailand has specific time limits for filing a breach of contract lawsuit, typically one year from the date you discover the breach.
  • Contract Clauses: Carefully review any clauses regarding dispute resolution within the contract itself. These clauses might specify alternative dispute resolution methods or limitations on remedies available.


Breach of contract can be a frustrating and costly experience. Understanding your rights and the legal framework in Thailand empowers you to take appropriate action if you encounter a contractual violation. By gathering evidence, seeking legal advice, and exploring options for resolving the issue, you can increase your chances of a successful outcome. Remember, prevention is always better than cure. Having a clear, well-drafted contract with specific terms and conditions can significantly reduce the risk of encountering a breach in the first place.

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